Loan Underwriting Process

When a person applies for a loan, he is termed to be an endorser or applicant of the loan. Person or organization, who lends the loan is known as the lender. In between the lender and borrower, sometimes there is an existence of a loan agent. After the application is made, the agent and the lender undertakes a very important procedure known as underwriting. In some cases the underwriting is done by both, the lender as well as the agent, but in some cases only the agent does finishes the procedure. It must be noted that there is no single loan underwriting definition, and the concept of underwriting is used for a varied number of reasons in the world of finance.

Underwriting procedure basically involves ascertaining the creditability and capability of the borrower to repay the loan. In cases where the loan is a commercial loan or a mortgage loan the projected value of the collateral is also forecast. Thus, basically, the loan underwriting process involves ascertaining the recovery of money and its rate of recovery. The process in itself is quite intricate, and difficult. The loan underwriting process is usually conducted for bigger loans such as mortgage loans and auto loans. The smaller loans, such as cash advance loans and payday loans however do not have complex underwriting processes, instead, a simple approval process is used. In United States Freddie Mae and Fannie Mae, along with the Federal Housing Administration provide detailed underwriting guidelines.


What is Loan Underwriting

The best way to understand the loan underwriting process, is to understand the considerations and aspects of loan underwriting. The loan underwriting guidelines that are provided by the aforementioned institutions are based upon the following aspects.

    Income: One of the most important aspect that is considered during the loan underwriting process is the income of the borrower. The loan's installment is also calculated as per the income of the borrower. The size of the loan i.e.: the total amount that is lent, the down payment and rate of interest are all decided upon the income of the borrower.
    Debt to Income Ratio: The second important factor that is considered while underwriting the loan is the debt to income ratio, which is the ratio between the monthly payable debts and the monthly income. The debt to income is sometimes also calculated for the entire year. The intention of calculating such a ratio is that it gives the perfect amount of income that is going to be used to pay debts.
    Employment and Source of Income: A very important aspect that is considered by the underwriters is the employment status of the borrower and the source of income. The undervriters also further analyze the income projection and the growth of income rate, in cases where the loan is very long term loan.
    Credit Report: The credit report of a person considers two important facts, namely, the credit history and the credit rating. The history is a record of all the previous credit related activities of the borrower. The rating is a figure that denotes the credit weightiness of the borrower. A rating is usually expressed in the form of a credit score and is calculated on the basis of credit history, late payments and defaults.
    Projection of the Property: The value projection of the property is also considered by the underwriters. This projection is taken into consideration, in cases where the asset is a real estate. There are cases where the mortgage loans and home loans are defaulted by the borrower or foreclosure has to be initiated. In such a case the lender takes over the ownership of the property, and sells it off to recover losses. The projection of the value of the property is thus an important aspect of mortgage loan underwriting.

It must be noted that the commercial loan underwriting process is much more different and complicated than the process that is meant for consumers. This process is applicable for consumers. I hope that the elaboration on loan underwriting process is resourceful. Good luck.

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